This is a physical issue and not a software one meaning youxe2x80x99ll have to get it replaced.
The haptic feedback is basically created by a small electromagnet that creates a vibration. Therexe2x80x99s really no xe2x80x9cmechanicalxe2x80x9d device. However, these components can fail from time to time.
The symptom that it works fine for a little while then quits after a few moments points to a bad connection somewhere (like a dry solder joint) that when things xe2x80x9cwarm up,xe2x80x9d it fails.
The fact that the trackpad on your MBP works fine pretty much guarantees itxe2x80x99s not a software issue. Unfortunately that means youxe2x80x99ve got to replace it, but Ixe2x80x99ve got clients who simply ignored it and continued to use it without the haptic feedback. For them, it was the track pad built in to the MBP and they preferred to wait until something more xe2x80x9cmajorxe2x80x9d needed service like the keyboard or battery to replace it.