You can create a screen shortcut for "home" or any location you use often. Long-press on the home screen, select the Shortcuts option, and scroll down to get a Directions option. You'll be prompted for an address, which can be either specific or general. Choose car, public transit, or walking directions, ensure "Turn-by-turn navigation" is checked, and give it a short name, like "home". Now you have a shortcut which will quickly get the directions you want from wherever you are.
You can also "star" locations on the map that you use often.
You can also use contacts to quickly get addresses for navigation. Were you to have a "home" entry in your contact list, you could simply use the voice command "Navigate to home".