If you want to run Android without installation:
From the grub menu after booting the installation media, choose advanced options then:
"Live CD VESA mode - no GPU hardware acceleration"
and if you already installed android and you want to boot it, in the grub menu press 'e' to edit the boot command, press 'e' again to edit the first command which starts with "kernel". Append this:
to the and of the command and press Enter to save, finally press 'b' to boot from the modified command and it will boot up successfully.
I tried this with CM 14.1 and Android 7.1 images and it works after I had the same problem with VMWare Workstation 14.